- Amines: Various amines and amine blends are tailored to coat the steel surfaces and protect against the identified contaminants.
- Iron Chelators: Iron chelators sequester free iron and prevent the formation iron oxidation and subsequent corrosion.
- Phosphonates: Phosphonate-based inhibitors attach to newly formed scales to prevent deposition by dispersion.
- Polymers: Low molecular weight polymers sequester newly formed scales and prevent deposition via dispersion.
- Phosphonate/polymer blends:
- Amines: Amines coat surfaces and prevent adhesion of scale particles.
- Amine/Phosphonate blends:
- Alkaline Dissolvers: Alkaline dissolvers are high pH solutions that chelate the cation portion of the scale molecule and render it into a soluble state. Alkaline dissolvers are highly effective at removing barium variants, strontium variants and calcium variants of scale deposits.
- Acid Dissolvers: Acid dissolvers are highly effective on Calcium scale variants by reducing the Calcium scale into the soluble conjugate calcium salt of the acid used.
- Crystalline modifiers: Crystal modifiers work through adsorption to the salt ions and change the naturally crystalline structure of salts into random, dendritic structures that will not readily form blocking aggregates.
- Emulsion breakers: Emulsion breakers designed for clarifying water are typically metal acids that will break water-in-oil emulsions prior to the water entering a separator.
- Flocculants: Flocculants are either anionic, cationic, polyanionic or amphoteric polymers that attach to solids and form aggregates that are easily separated from the water phase.
- Crystal Modifiers: Crystal modifiers are polymeric compounds with similar structures to paraffin waxes. When they combine with wax molecules, they disrupt the formation of the crystalline wax structure and impart a “less sticky” property to the wax conglomerate.
- Paraffin dispersants are lipophilic surfactants that work by chemically changing the polarity of the wax hydrocarbon chain and disrupt the ability of wax molecules to coalesce and form sticky aggregates.
- Paraffin solvents are light end hydrocarbons that are not removed in the gas separation phase and thus render the crude oil more soluble to paraffin and keep the wax in a soluble state.
Glacial Acidic Acid Solvents:
- Glacial Acidic Acid-based solvents use varying concentrations of dilute Glacial Acidic Acid to prevent the formation of wax crystals.
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